This position paper maps the role of immigrant labour in meeting the needs of European child and elderly care and presents policy recommendations along the lines of the socio-ecological transition that could lead to more dignified and fair conditions for carrying out care work. National welfare regimes in Europe increasingly rely on immigrant care workers and, in the context of European immigration care chains, different mixtures of state - and market - based policies shape national care regimes and sustain and reproduce inherent inequalities of care chains. The paper summarises the main results of the related Working Paper on two transnational care chains formed by four EU member states (Italy, Poland, Romania and the United Kingdom) and Ukraine. It indicates that across the EU, the care sector lacks the structural reform that would transform it into a sector of dignified work and carrier opportunities. Our major finding is that national policies are typically shaped along the line of least resistance, ignoring raising demand for care, continuing the structural shrink age of formal care and turning to monetary subsidies and relying on cheap immigrant labour. This reflects fiscal and market pressures rather than a long-term strategic approach towards employment in the care sector along the lines of the socio-ecological transition, such as reducing gender inequalities or opening up the sector for vulnerable groups. In the emerging state-market mix, the key feature of state policies is the aim of regulating migration flows that supply market demand for cheap care labour.