This publication provides insight into the terms of the debates on further EU enlargement in several new Member States as well as in Turkey and Ukraine. The results of these debates deserve more attention in the old Member States since they testify to the pool of optimism and openness on both sides of the border of the enlarged EU. Regardless of the twists and turns that the EU integration process is taking at the moment, the vision of enlarging Europe remains attractive to the citizens of the countries most directly concerned, who are still acutely aware of the costs of fragmentation and isolation. It is the hope of the team of authors that this broad perspective will not be lost in future debates on the costs of further enlargement and on the EU's 'absorption capacity'. Published by the Institute of Public Affairs, based on a project financed by the Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative affiliated with the Open Society Institute, Budapest.