Summary EDUMIGROM survey data demonstrates that the impact of ethnic segregation/separation of students in school is far from evident. Various patterns of separation affect students’ performance, self-esteem and aspirations towards further schooling and labour market participation quite differently, and, naturally, the wider social and structural circumstances seem to have a determining influence as well. EDUMIGROM comparative survey research reveals a divergence between new and old member states of the European Union in how ethnic background and school environment affect students’ performance, self-esteem, and aspirations. In new EU member states, there are significant differences between ethnic minority and majority students studying in the same environment. In particular, ethnic background as well as the ethnic composition of a school influence students’ performance, self-esteem, and aspirations. While old EU member states are by no means homogeneous, these relationships are generally not so pronounced. The most clear-cut relationship between a school’s ethnic composition and respondents’ performance, self-esteem, and aspirations is that the correlation between performance in school and self-esteem is not inherently positive. Minority ethnic students studying in schools that are dominated by the country’s ethnic majority perform well and have high aspirations regarding further schooling and employment, but tend to have a more negative self-image and, in general, and feel less comfortable at school. By contrast, minority ethnic students have higher self-esteem and feel more comfortable in schools in which they form a majority, but perform poorly and have limited aspirations regarding their education or labour market participation. Both relationships are especially pronounced in countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The least favourable environment both for majority and minority ethnic students in terms of performance, self-esteem, and aspirations comprises schools where segregation is practised within the walls of the institution. Taking into account all aspects investigated within the EDUMIGROM research project, under certain conditions, an ethnically mixed school and class environment seems to best meet the needs of both majority and minority ethnic students. Mixed schools appear to provide students who perform well with opportunities to continue suitable education, and they also assist with the healthy development of students’ self-esteem and interpersonal relationships.