International public opinion (that is, non-US public opinion) provides an important set of clues about the asserted rise of anti-Americanism and its implications for international security. Accordingly, this paper examines what polling in the first years of the 21st century reveals about the degree of anti-Americanism internationally, and prevailing differences between national publics. The polls examined were taken before and after September 11 and the invasion and occupation of Iraq. A central question is that of the extent to which negative views are specific to particular US policies and a particular American Administration (Bush II) or of a more encompassing nature. The former argues against the rise of the sort of anti-Americanism which would have broad international security implications; the latter argues for it. That appraisal should not assume that international public opinion can only take a pro-American or anti-American position. A third alternative would have publics less pro- or anti-American than they are uncertain, divided, or ambivalent about the US and its world role.